Category Archives: Lake County

Mara “Mary Violet” Kos[s]

Mara “Mary Violet” Kos[s]
birth: 18 July 1900 in Dubranec, Austria-Hungary to Josip “Joseph” and Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenic Kos[s]
death: 5 June 1895 in Scottsdale, Maricopa, Arizona
burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 28 January 1917 in Chicago, Cook. Illinois
Ivan “John” Kos[s]
birth: 19 November 1892 in Dubranec, Austria-Hungary to Josip Opos “Joseph” and Katarina Cvetković Kos
death: 20 October 1970 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

Children of Mara “Mary Violet” Kos[s] and Ivan “John” Kos[s]:

  • Dorothy Elizabeth Koss (1918-2001) m. Orlo Guy Leininger
  • Anne Marie Katherine Koss (1919-2006) m. Michael Andrew Milinovich
  • George Joseph Kos (1921-2006) m. Elizabeth Dorothy “Betty” Altomere
  • Mary Louise “Mary Lou” Koss (1931-1999) m. 1st Paul Julius Domonkos m. 2nd Martin Jerome “Jerry” Vavrak m. 3 & 4 Robert Eugene Hamilton m. 5th Philip Savio

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Lake County, Indiana

Other Information:

Mara “Mary Violet” Kos was born to Josip “Joseph” and Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich Kos[s] on 18 July 1900 in the tiny village of Dubranec, Austria-Hungary. Mary was the third child born to the couple but her older brothers had died as infants. Her parents would go on to have three more children, one who died as a child. Mary learned to read and write Croatian in the village. In later years, the country’s name changed to Yugoslavia and then, Croatia. Her father, a military man serving in the cavalry, was injured by a horse and was forced to leave the service. When she was 9, he left the family and set off for America. Three years later he sent for the family to join him. Mary recalled to this submitter that she enjoyed the trip over the Atlantic in July 1913 on the President Lincoln, entertaining passengers by singing. Her height was not recorded; she had brown hair and blue eyes, though green were written on the arriving passenger sheet. The family spent their first night in their new country in a hotel in New York City. Mary recalled years later she was excited by all the people, noise, and items available for purchase in the stores. Ever the apple of her father’s eye, she told her father he had made the right decision to relocate. Her mother and brother weren’t so sure about that. Mary adapted and embraced American customs, though she was known for her delicate Croatian pastries. Traveling by train, her father had found a temporary residence for his family in a backroom of a church between Adams and Jefferson Streets on West Ridge Road in Gary, Lake, Indiana. He returned to live in Chicago where he was employed. Mary continued her education in Gary and learned English quickly. After a short stay in Gary, Mary, her mother, and brother joined their father in Blue Island, Cook, Illinois where her youngest sister was born. The family had considered moving to Bethlehem or Alquipa, Pennsylvania where work with the steel mills was available but decided to stay in the midwest. The family later moved to the Lincoln Park area of Chicago. Mary acknowledged as an adult that she liked to flirt and that gave her father concern. He took it upon himself to arrange for her to be married to a distant cousin who the family discovered had also emigrated to Chicago. At age 16, Mary wed Ivan “John” Kos[s] on 28 January 1917 at Chicago, Cook, Illinois. Within a year, their first child was born in Pullman housing as Mary feared giving birth in a hospital. She had heard tales of children being given to the wrong family. Although the family laughed at her for years, DNA has since proved her correct. Job prospects in Gary, Lake, Indiana, took the family there by late 1918. The family lived together in a rented house at 1521 Garfield Street. Her father and husband bicycled to their jobs at I.I.B. Teaming Company. The couples second child was born shortly after they relocated to Gary. Difficult times lay ahead for the family as Mary’s father died in 1919 from complication of influenza. Soon after, John was hired by U.S. Steel. It was there that he lost a leg saving a fellow employee from being crushed by an incoming train. John had been the sole breadwinner of the family consisting of Mary, three small children, her mother, her brother, and her sister. The family, living at 2636 Harrison Street in Gary had their home flood from the nearby Calumet River. Their oldest child, Dorothy, recalled in later years that the backyard had a grape arbor, lots of snakes and a hill where the children liked to play. They also became ill with scarlet fever and health officials quarantined the family. With the help of two minority neighbors, Mary was able to nurse the children back to health. The family used money received from the mill accident to purchase their first home at 336 West Ridge Road. It was a farmhouse that Mary later had bricked. The country home was so far out that the streetcar line did not extend there. Mary took in boarders and became an active member of St. Marks Roman Catholic Church. It is not known why the KuKluxKlan decided to terrorize the family shortly after they moved into their new home in 1923. They were immigrants, Roman Catholic, and had minority friends who would visit. They also grew grapes and were known for their exceptional wine they sold which became problematic during Prohibition. Their oldest child recalled the terror of hiding in the home’s fruit celler as the Klan burned a cross on the sand dune across from the family’s residence. Mary became active with the Croatian Fraternal Union and as a soprano, joined Preradovic, a glee club, that toured in Yugoslavia in 1960. She and her husband also helped found St. Joseph the Worker Roman Catholic Croatian Church in Gary. Once her children were grown she became a beautician working for Mike Caulif at a salon on Broadway and 39th Avenue. Mary became a naturalized citizen in 1941. She later found work at U.S. Steel in the sorting mill but due to her short stature had difficulty reaching the platform. John was concerned so she found work at the Ball plant. She left her job shortly after John retired from U.S. Steel. In the late 1950s, Mary and John had a smaller home built on the east side of Glen Park, giving her son their Ridge Road home. Within a year, he had decided to relocate to Florida so the couple moved back to their old homestead. Mary’s oldest daughter and granddaughter, along with her mother, resided there through the 1960s, though the home was put up for sale in 1966. After John’s death on 20 October 1970, Mary continued to be active with her many lady friends. Throughout her life, she enjoyed playing bunco, going to movies, and visiting those that had relocated to California and Florida. After her daughter Dorothy relocated to Florida, Mary sold her home to her former daughter-in-law, Betty Altomere Kos, and moved to St. Petersburg, Pinellas, Florida in October 1973. Her daughter, Mary Lou, had moved to Arizona and after a visit, Mary decided she would move there. She returned to Florida in 1977, living in the same apartment complex, Brookside Square, as her daughter. Due to the onset of Alzheimers Disease, her children decided she should live with her daughter Anne Marie in Pennsylvania in October 1979. Anne Marie had difficulty with the arrangement and after one month, Mary was living with her daughter Mary Lou in Arizona. Mary died in Scottsdale on 5 June 1985 and was interred at Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Indiana.

Mary was barely 5 feet tall and her mother, Anna, was shorter than her. Anna was recorded as being 5′ 2″ at the time she emigrated. Mary was only 12 and still growing which is possibly why she and her brother Joseph had no height information recorded.
The family had a name change after arriving in the U.S. Manifests show they left Austria-Hungary with the surname Kos and were still using that spelling in 1914. Sometime between 1914 and 1917, however, the name was changed to Koss as is shown on Mary’s wedding certificate. This submitter asked Mary why the name was changed; she stated that it was a recommendation of a clerk at Ellis Island. He said to think about it as most American names are longer than three letters. The family continued to use the original spelling but as they became assimilated, decided to add a letter to their surname. It was at that time that also Americanized their first names. Barbara continued to use the original surname spelling of her maiden name throughout her life. Mary’s son, George, changes his name from Koss to Kos while serving in the Coast Guard during World War 2.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich

Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich
birth: 21 December 1876 in Jerebic, Austria-Hungary to Janko and Yalza Elizabeta Cvekuvich Grdenic
death: 14 February 1966 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 10 February 1895 in Dubranac, Austria-Hungary
Josip “Joseph” Kos
birth: 24 May 1875 in Dubranec, Austria-Hungary to Nicholas Miko and Kata Trputec Kos
death: 19 February 1919 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

Children of Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich and Josip “Joseph” Kos:

  • Vincent (1897-bef 1900)
  • Thomas (1899-abt 1899)
    Mara “Mary Violet” Kos[s] (1900-1985) m. Ivan “John” Kos[s]
  • Josip “Joseph Stephen” Kos[s] (1902-1993) m. Mary Ann Farkas
  • Doro Kos (1904-1909)
  • Barbara Mary Kos (1914-1995) m. 1st Ferencz “Frank” Weigus m. 2nd Joseph Paul Milosevich

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Gary, Lake County, Indiana

Other Information:

Jana Kata “Anna Katherine,” born 21 December 1876 in Jerebic, Austria-Hungary, was the daughter of Janko and Yalza Elizabeta Cvekuvich Grdenic. Anna’s mother’s nickname, in English, was Blondie, for she was known in the small village for her thick blonde hair. The name of the country Anna was born in has changed since her time there; it became Yugoslavia and later, Croatia. Little is known of her early years. She was married at age 18 to Josip “Joseph” Kos on 10 February 1895 in Dubranec, Austria-Hungary. Dubranec was a nearby village to Jerebic. Anna was a homemaker while Joseph served in the Austrian-Hungarian calvary. In their native country, five children were born to the couple, three dying young. After Joseph sustained a medical condition he was released from the military. He decided to make his way to America. He arrived in New York on 17 January 1910. Thus, Anna became a single mother for a time. After establishing himself as a laborer on the railroads, Joseph sent for his wife and living children, Mary and Joseph. He traveled from Chicago, where he was then working, to New York City to meet them upon their arrival on the President Lincoln in July 1913. Emigration records show Anna was 5’2″ with brown hair and green eyes. The family spent their first night on American soil in a hotel in New York City. Mary recalled years later how they window shopped after dinner and were amazed with all the items available for purchase. Anna fell in love with an electric hurricane lamp on display, painted with pink roses. She asked Joseph to purchase it but he said its fragility would not survive the long railroad trip to Indiana where the family was headed. He promised to purchase one just like it when they were settled. Joseph did just that; he made his purchase at Marshall Fields in Chicago and the lamp remains in the family today. While Joseph was working in Chicago, he found his family a room to rent in the back of a church located between Adams and Jefferson Street on West Ridge Road in Gary, Indiana. The family spent their days learning English and the children were enrolled in school. Joseph found a residence in Blue Island, Cook, Illinois and it was there, in 1914 that their daughter Barbara was born. Anna took in boarders, did needlework, and child care to earn the family extra income. By 1917 the family had moved to the Lincoln Park section of Chicago. By late 1918, Joseph and Mary’s husband, John, had found work in Gary, Lake, Indiana so the family relocated there. It was in their rental home at 1521 Garfield Street that Joseph died on 19 February 1919 of broncho pneumonia,a complication of influenza. Mary mourned the loss of her husband for her remaining years. Although she understood and could speak English, she preferred to use her native Croatian. She lived with her adult children, rotating homes, through the rest of her life, assisting them with childcare and later, with taking care of her great grandchildren. She was well loved and known as Granny. In the last years of her life she suffered from dementia and was moved to a convalescent center for a few weeks before her death on 14 February 1966 in Gary. She is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana next to her daughter Mary and son-in-law John. Her husband, also buried in Oak Hill, was buried in the older part of the cemetery.

The family had a name change after arriving in the U.S. Manifests show they left Austria-Hungary with the surname Kos and were still using that spelling when their youngest daughter, Barbara, was born in Chicago. Between 1914 and 1917, however, the name was changed to Koss as is shown on Mary’s wedding certificate. Joseph’s death record reflects the spelling Koss. This submitter asked Mary why the name was changed; she stated that it was a recommendation of a clerk at Ellis Island. He said to think about it as most American names are longer than three letters. The family continued to use the original spelling but as they became assimilated, decided to add a letter to their surname. It was at that time that also Americanized their first names. Barbara continued to use the original surname spelling of her maiden name throughout her life.
Interestingly, a Tony Kos is buried next to Joseph Koss in Oak Hill Cemetery. No relationship between the individuals has been discovered. Tony’s burial date was 20 November 1934. Cemetery records are not clear as to when both plots were purchased and by whom. Kos is a common name in Croatia, meaning crow or blackbird, so Tony may not be related. Other Kos[s]’ in the cemetery with unknown relationship to this family are Nick Koss 30 Sept 1948 and John Kos 27 January 1934.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Josip “Joseph” Kos

Josip “Joseph” Kos
birth: 24 May 1875 in Dubranec, Austria-Hungary to Nicholas Milo and Kata Trputec Kos
death: 19 February 1919 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 10 February 1895 in Dubranac, Austria-Hungary
Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich
birth: 21 December 1876 in Jerebic, Austria-Hungary to Janko and Yalza Elizabeta Cvekuvich Grdenic
death: 14 February 1966 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

Children of Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich and Josip “Joseph” Kos:

  • Vincent (1897-bef 1900)
  • Thomas (1899-abt 1899)
  • Mara “Mary Violet” Kos[s] (1900-1985) m. Ivan “John” Kos[s]
  • Josip “Joseph Stephen” Kos[s] (1902-1993) m. Mary Ann Farkas
  • Doro Kos (1904-1909)
  • Barbara Mary Kos (1914-1995) m. 1st Ferencz “Frank” Weigus m. 2nd Joseph Paul Milosevich

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Gary, Lake County, Indiana

Other Information:

Josip “Joseph” Kos, the middle son of Nicholas Milo and Kata Trputec Kos, was born on 24 May 1875 in Dubranec, Austria-Hungary. The land area has changed names since his birth there; it became Yugoslavia and now, Croatia. Little is known about his early life in the small village outside Zagreb, Croatia where he was raised. He joined the Cavalry and married Jana Kata “Anna Katherine” Grdenich on 10 February 1895 in Dubranac. She was from a nearby village. The couple had five children together but only two born in Croatia survived childhood. While having his horse reshoed one day, Joseph sustained a kick to his chest. He became asthmatic and was let go from the cavalry. Some family stories say he was kicked in the head and became an epileptic. Regardless, Joseph did not want a future as a farmer and decided to seek his fortune in America. He departed from LeHavre and arrived via the ship La Lorraine in New York City on 17 January 1910 with $20.00; he was traveling to meet a friend Mato Krisanic who resided in the U.S. He was noted to be 5′ 6″ with brown hair and blue eyes. Joseph quickly found employment with the Pullman Railroad Company and was sent to Pennsylvania and later Chardon, Geauga, Ohio. He worked for Pullman, crossing the country all the way to California. He was later transferred to Chicago, Illinois. In1913, he sent fare to his wife and children, Mary and Joseph, to join him in the U.S. Joseph took the train from Chicago to New York to meet his family on 5 July 1913. They spent the night in a hotel in the city and took the train west the following day. Joseph, while staying in Chicago, found an apartment in the backroom of a church for his family on 31 March 1913 in Gary, Indiana. The name of the church has been forgotten but the location was on West Ridge Road between Adams and Jefferson Street. There the children were enrolled in school and the family took English lessons. After a short time, Joseph secured Pullman housing and the family joined him in nearby Chicago. Another child was born to the couple in Blue Island, Cook, Illinois. Daughter Mary wed in 1917 and her new husband, Ivan “John” Kos moved into the small residence in the Lincoln Park area of Chicago. The growing family decided to seek new opportunity in Gary, Lake, Indiana where Joseph and John found work at I.I.B. Teaming Company. By late 1918 the family had relocated to a rented house at 1521 Garfield Street. Joseph and John would bicycle to work. Both became ill during the influenza pandemic. Although John recovered, Joseph’s conditioned worsened into broncho pneumonia. He died at 7 AM at his residence in Gary on 19 February 1919. He was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Glen Park, Indiana.

The family had a name change after arriving in the U.S. Manifests show they left Austria-Hungary with the surname Kos and were still using that spelling when their youngest daughter, Barbara, was born in Chicago. Between 1914 and 1917, however, the name was changed to Koss as is shown on Mary’s wedding certificate. Joseph’s death record reflects the spelling Koss. This submitter asked Mary why the name was changed; she stated that it was a recommendation of a clerk at Ellis Island. He said to think about it as most American names are longer than three letters. The family continued to use the original spelling but as they became assimilated, decided to add a letter to their surname. It was at that time that also Americanized their first names. Barbara continued to use the original surname spelling of her maiden name throughout her life.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson

Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson
birth: 1 May 1896 in Miller, Gary, Lake, Indiana to Anders Ludvig “Gust” and Lovisa “Louise” Carlson Johannesson Johnson
death: 25 July 1968 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 16 October 1919 Lake, Indiana
George Bryant Harbaugh
birth: 4 April 1894 in St. Joseph, Indiana to George Frederick and Margaret E. “Maggie” Long Harbaugh
death: 29 December 1954 in LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana

Children of Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson and George Bryant Harbaugh:

  • Betty Jean Harbaugh (1922-1988) m. William Louis Samuelson
  • George Willard Harbaugh (1924-2004) m. Dorothy Louise Skogseth
  • Glenn Robert Harbaugh (1928-1995)

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Gary, Lake County, Indiana

Other Information:

Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson was the middle daughter born to immigrants Anders Ludvig “Gust” and Lovisa “Louise” Carlson Johannesson Johnson on 1 May 1896 in Miller, now Gary, Lake, Indiana. Elsie attended the Hobart school system through grade 8, graduating on the Honor Roll on 9 June 1911. She had also received Honor Roll and Reading Awards in previous school years which is a testament to her dedication to her studies. At age 10, Elsie’s father past away leaving her mother to make ends meet by taking in borders. The family attended the Miller Swedish Bethel Evangelical Lutheran Church where Elsie received her confirmation on 21 April 1912. She became a member of the Miller Congregational Church, later known as Chapel of The Dunes and received the Cross and Crown Attendance Certificate on 22 December 1912. She found work as a mother’s helper in Miller and met George Bryant Harbaugh who was working as a security guard for the railroad. Their plans for marriage were interrupted when George was mustered into the Infantry to fight overseas in World War I. Elsie kept every letter she received from George. The couple married on 16 October 1919 in Gary, Lake, Indiana. Their first residence was on Michigan Street in Miller which had just become incorporated into Gary. The couple had two children by 1925 when George finished building a Sears kit home at 6209 Miller Avenue. The home, in a box, had been delivered via the nearby railroad. Their last child was born three years later. Elsie was active as a parishioner of Chapel of the Dunes Church, the C.O.P Club, Lake County Chapter No. 80 of the Military Auxilliary of the Purple Heart and with the Order of the Eastern Star. Her association with the Purple Heart came about due to her husband’s World War 1 injuries and must have been difficult during World War 2 when her son, George, was shot down over Italy and taken as a POW by the Germans. Her son was also awarded the Purple Heart. During this time her daughter’s husband received a military medical discharge and was living with Elsie and George Bryant. Elsie’s first grandchild died as an infant and her second was mentally handicapped. On 29 December 1954, her husband George, while working as a fireman at the Kingsburgy Ordinace Plant in LaPorte, died from injuries he received in a fall from the roof a few days earlier. By 1959 she gave her home to her daughter’s growing family and moved around the corner in a smaller home once owned by her son George Willard. Her six remaining grandchildren have fond memories of Elsie. She died on 25 July 1968 at Mercy Hospital, Gary, Lake, Indiana of hypertension. After a funeral service at Chapel of the Dunes arranged by Lach Funeral Home she was buried besides her husband and mother at Ridgelawn Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Lovisa “Louise” Carlson

Lovisa “Louise” Carlson
birth: 21 April 1857 in Gränna, Jonkoping, Sweden to Carl Gustaf and Anna Stina Lindahl Johannesson
death: 14 May 1937 in Porter, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Gary, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 16 September 1893 in Miller, Lake, Indiana
Anders Ludvig “Gust” Johannesson/Johnson
birth: 8 August 1839 in Norra Vi, Östergötland, Sweden to Johannes and Johanna Maria Danielsdotter Ingesson
death: 20 May 1906 Miller, Lake, Indiana
burial: Blake Cemetery, Portage, Porter, Indiana

Children of Lovisa “Louise” Carlson and Anders Ludvig “Gust” Johannesson/Johnson:

  • Ruth Elizabeth Johnson (1894-1980) m. Bert Garfield Thompson
  • Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson (1896-1968) m. George Bryant Harbaugh
  • Helena “Helen” Eleanora Johnson (1897-1986) m. Walter Fredrick Bernhard Chellberg

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Porter, Indiana
  • Miller, Lake, Indiana

Other Information:

Lovisa “Louise” Carlson was born to Carl Gustaf Johannesson and Anna Stina Lindahl on 23 April 1823 in Gränna, Jonkoping, Sweden. She was the second of four children born to the couple. At age 27, Louise left Göteborg, Sweden on 16 May 1884 and sailed on the Orlando to Hull, England. Louise boarded in Liverpool, England, stopped in Queenstown, Ireland and arrived in New York via the ship City of Chicago on 13 October 1884. By the 27 May 1887 she had arrived in Chicago, Cook, Illinois. Interestingly, another Lovisa Carlson departed Sweden on the 27 May 1887 for Chicago; that Lovisa had the same birth year and place of origin. It is possible the Lovisa returned to Sweden after her initial voyage as both the 1900 and 1910 US federal census shows her emigration year was 1888. TYpically, the last year of entry was considered the year of emigration. How Louise came to Indiana is not known. She may have had a first marriage as a record was found for a marriage in Porter, Indiana on 4 January 1889 for a Lovisa Carlson to a Swan Hjalne. No records were found for a death or burial for Swan nor was he found in any subsequent records. Further research is needed.
On 16 September 1893 in Miller, Lake, Indiana, Louise married Anders Ludvig “Gust” Johannesson Johnson. The marriage certificate, in the possession of the submitter, states she was from Chicago and gives her name as “Miss Louise Johnson.” Perhaps the form completer erred and placed her married name as her maiden name. Maybe she had chosen to not use patronymics and instead of using the surname Carlson, took her father’s original last name as her own. Anders was previously married to Thilda “Anna Matilda” Johansdotter (1848-1891). The couple had 10 children. At the time Louise married Anders, his children from his previous marriage ranged in age from 4 to 24. Louise and Anders would go on to have three daughters together. In 1900, Louise, Anders, their daughters and four of Louise’s step-children lived in Hobart, Lake, Indiana. Although the couple would have been married 7 years, census records show the length of marriage was recorded as 19 years. Possibly that time was given as to make it appear that the oldest child in the household at the time was their daughter as a couple. Anders was working as a Section Hand on the railroad. He died on 20 May 1906 of carcinoma of the liver in Miller, Lake, Indiana. Louise was the informant on her husband’s death certificate and gave his given name as Agust. Possibly, Louise did not know her husband’s given name was Anders and assumed it was Augst as they were married with his name recorded as Gust. To make ends meet, Louise began to take in boarders to her home in Hobart. By 1920 she had moved to Michigan Avenue in Miller with her youngest daughter, Helen, likely to be closer to her two daughters who had married and resided in Miller. After Helen married in 1921, Louise moved in with her daughter Elsie’s family. She continued to live with them until shortly before her death on 14 May 1937 in Porter County where she had moved to reside with her daughter Helen’s family. Louise is buried in Ridgelawn Cemetery, Glen Park, Lake, Indiana, near her daughter Elsie and her son-in-law George Bryant Harbaugh.

A marriage record for Louise’s parents prior to their children’s births has not been found. Anna Stina Lindahl is recorded on the children’s baptism records. A marriage for an Anna Stina Lindahl and Carl Gustaf Johannesson was found on 3 November 1866 in Öhr annex, Kronoberg, Sverige. The family, however, resided in Gränna, Jönköping, Sverige until Louise departed alone for America. It is not known if the 1866 marriage was for another couple in Sweden with the same names.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Betty Jean Harbaugh

Betty Jean Harbaugh
birth: 8 October 1922 in Gary, Lake, Indiana to George Bryant and Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson Harbaugh
death: 30 October 1988 in Angola, Steuben, Indiana
burial: Graceland Cemetery, Valparaiso, Porter, Indiana

marriage: 11 October 1942 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
William “Bill” Louis Samuelson
birth: 14 October 1919 in Baileytown, Porter, Indiana to Gustaf “Gust” Teodor and Lulu May Cook Samuelson
death: 5 May 1992 in Fremont, Steuben, Indiana
burial: Graceland Cemetery, Valparaiso, Indiana

Children of Betty Jean Harbaugh and William “Bill” Louis Samuelson:

  • William Lewis Samuelson (1944-1944)
  • Lynn Patrice Samuelson (1946-2005)
  • Living
  • Living

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Gary, Lake, Indiana
  • Angola, Steuben, Indiana

Other Information:

Betty Jean Harbaugh, born 8 October 1922, was the oldest of three children born to George Bryant and Elsie Wilhelmina Harbaugh Samuelson. The only daughter, she was christened at the Augsburg Lutheran Church in Porter, Indiana on 18 February 1923. Betty was raised in a Sears kit home built by her father. The family later attended Chapel of the Dunes through 1938. On 13 June 1940, Betty graduated from Emerson High School, Gary, Lake, Indiana. In 1942, Betty was working as a clerk with Carnegie Steel Corporation in Gary, Lake, Indiana. Betty married William “Bill” Louis Samuelson on 5 October 1942 in Lake County, Indiana. The couple had met on a double date; Betty was dating Bill’s younger brother Edwin that evening. It is not known who Bill was dating. On 30 November 1942 Bill entered the Army and was sent to Camp Chaffee, Arkansas. He was discharged on 12 October 1943 due to a medical issue. The couple resided with Betty’s parents in Miller, Indiana; Bill found work as a clerk with his sister Margaret’s husband’s family until October 1947. Betty became a homemaker. The couple’s first child died as an infant; their second child was born mentally handicapped. By 1950 the family had moved to Chesterton, Porter, Indiana. Bill was employed as a chemical clerk for Amoco Oil in Whiting, Lake, Indiana. Bill continued to work for Amoco until he retired. By 1955 the couple had returned to live in Miller; they rented an apartment from Bill’s sister, Margaret. Two more children were born to the couple. The family joined the Bethel Lutheran Church in Miller. In 1959, the family moved to Betty’s childhood home as her mother, a widow, wanted a smaller residence. Betty found part time work in the cafeteria at Miller Elementary School while her youngest children were enrolled there. She later found work as an executive secretary for the Indiana Port Commission. In October 1981, where she worked as a recorder at Midwest Steel Corporation, she collapsed due to a pulmonary embolism. Betty and Bill then retired to a home on Snow Lake in Fremont, Steuben, Indiana. Betty died in Angola, Steuben, Indiana on 30 October 1988. She was buried in Graceland Cemetery, Valparaiso, Porter, Indiana.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

William “Bill” Louis Samuelson

William “Bill” Louis Samuelson
birth: 14 October 1919 in Baileytown, Porter, Indiana to Gustaf “Gust” Teodor and Lulu May Cook Samuelson
death: 5 May 1992 in Fremont, Steuben, Indiana
burial: Graceland Cemetery, Valparaiso, Porter, Indiana

marriage: 11 October 1942 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
Betty Jean Harbaugh
birth: 8 October 1922 in Gary, Lake, Indiana to George Bryant and Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson Harbaugh
death: 30 October 1988 in Angola, Steuben, Indiana
burial: Graceland Cemetery, Valparaiso, Indiana

Children of Betty Jean Harbaugh and William “Bill” Louis Samuelson:

  • William Lewis Samuelson (1944-1944)
  • Lynn Patrice Samuelson (1946-2005)
  • Living
  • Living

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Gary, Lake, Indiana
  • Steuben, Indiana

Other Information:

William “Bill” Louis Samuelson, born 14 October 1919 in Baileytown, Porter, Indiana was the sixth of seven children born to Gustaf “Gust” Teodor and Lulu May Cook Samuelson. Bill’s mother was a homemaker and his father worked for the railroad as a Steam Shovel Engineer. He was christened at his home on 15 October 1923 by Pastor Fredrick Nordquist. His sponsors were Mrs. Fred. Nordquist and Mrs. Bertha Berg. At the start of the Great Depression, Bill’s father began managing a feed store in Porter County. Bill recalled as an adult that he and his younger brother, Edwin, would be rewarded each Saturday with as much penny candy as they wanted if they had been good all week. Unfortunately, Bill’s dad lost his job and Bill and Edwin were sent to live with their oldest sister, Ruby, and her second husband, Carl Sederberg. Bill later recalled that he did not like farm life. On 11 June 1933 he was confirmed at the Augsburg Evangelical Lutheran Church in Porter, Indiana. By 1940, Bill resided with another older sister, Margaret, in Chicago, Illinois where he worked fulltime as a car washer for a cab company. By October 1940, Bill was unemployed and had moved back to his parent’s home in Chesterton, Porter, Indiana. Bill had completed two years of high school; he earned a General Equivalency Diploma from Chesterton High School on 25 May 1948. At 19 years of age, Bill was 5′ 11″, weighed 160 pounds, had blue eyes, blonde hair and a light complexion. Bill married Betty Jean Harbaugh on 5 October 1942 in Lake County, Indiana. The couple had met on a double date; Betty was dating Bill’s younger brother Edwin that evening. It is not known who Bill was dating. Bill enlisted in the Army Company A on 30 November 1942 and was assigned to Camp Chaffee, Arkansas. He was discharged on 12 October 1943 due to a medical issue. The couple resided with Betty’s parents in Miller, Indiana; Bill found work as a clerk with his sister Margaret’s husband’s family until October 1947. The couple’s first child died as an infant; their second child was born mentally handicapped.By 1950 the family had moved to Chesterton, Porter, Indiana. Bill was employed as a chemical clerk for Amoco Oil in Whiting, Lake, Indiana. Bill continued to work for Amoco until he retired. By 1955 the couple had returned to live in Miller; they rented an apartment from Bill’s sister, Margaret. Two more children were born to the couple. The family joined the Bethel Lutheran Church in Miller. In 1959, the family moved to Betty’s childhood home as her mother, a widow, wanted a smaller residence. The family continued to reside their until circa 1979 when Bill and Betty retired to a home on Snow Lake in Fremont, Steuben, Indiana. Betty died in Angola on 30 October 1988. Bill died at his home on Snow Lake in Fremont, Indiana on 5 May 1992. The couple are buried in Graceland Cemetery, Valparaiso, Porter, Indiana.

Bill’s middle name is shown in records as both Louis and Lewis. He told the submitter that it was a “family” name. There was a Lewis Warren Thompson on his maternal line but it appears his preferred spelling was Louis, as noted on his WW2 draft registration.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Lulu May Cook

Lulu May Cook
birth: 15 August 1883 in Melrose Park, Cook, Illinois to Andrew and Mary Thompson Cook
death: 14 October 1968 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Augsburg Lutheran Cemetery, Porter, Indiana

marriage: 3 December 1904 in Baileytown, Chesterton, Indiana
Gustaf “Gust” Teodor Samuelson
birth: 29 April 1879 in Baileytown, Chesterton, Porter, Indiana to Samuel August and Maria Svendsotter/Swanson Samuelson
death: 9 October 1947 in San Bernardino, California
burial: Augsburg Lutheran Cemetery, Porter, Indiana

Children of Lulu May Cook and Gustaf “Gust” Teodor Samuelson:

  • Ruby Mae Samuelson (1907-2003) m. 1st. Charles Kenneth Lindell m. 2nd Carl Mitchell Sederberg
  • Lester Gustaf Samuelson (1908-1978)
  • Arline Marie Samuelson (1910-1969) m. Milton Richard Danderson
  • Margaret Samuelson (1912-1982) m. Earle Charles Heritage
  • Carolyn “Loretta” Lucile Samuelson (1916-1932)
  • William Lewis Samuelson (1919-1992) m. Betty Jean Harbaugh
  • Edwin Donald Samuelson (1921-1993) m. Lorraine Maleski

Ancestor here lived in:

  • Gary, Lake, Indiana

Other Information:

Lulu May Cook Samuelson was the oldest of seven children born to Andrew and Mary Thompson Cook. Born on the 15 August 1883 in Melrose Park, Cook, Illinois, Lulu attended 8 years of schooling and was found in the 1900 US federal census as a 15 year old boarder living in Westchester, Porter, Indiana where she was employed a cord maker at the Warren Featherbone Factory, also known as Three Oaks. The plant was known for stripping turkey feathers of their quills to use in women’s garments of the era, such as corsets. Lulu’s mother, Mary, and her siblings were also residing in a home they owned in Porter County in 1900. Father Andrew remained in Chicago as a boarder, working as a blacksmith. It is not known why the family relocated to Porter County. On 3 December 1904, Lulu married in Baileytown, Chesterton, Porter, Indiana Gustaf “Gust” Teodor Samuelson. She was noted in all further records as being employed as a housewife. The couple would go on to have four daughters and three sons with daughter Loretta, a piano virtuoso, dying unexpectedly at age 16. Lulu’s husband also died unexpectedly, in 1947 on a visit the couple had made to San Bernardino, California to visit their married daughter Arlene. After Gust’s death, Lulu continued to live in Westchester, Indiana in the home she owned. After daughter Margaret’s husband died in 1954, Lulu spent the summers at a lake near Middlebury, Indiana where her daughter ran a grocery store. She enjoyed playing card games, such as pinochle, and Scrabble, after dinner with family and friends. During the winter months, she lived in an apartment building in Miller, Indiana next door to her daughter, Margaret. It was there that she died on 14 October 1968 of generalized arteriosclerosis. Edmonds Funeral Home provided the arrangments. She was buried next to her husband in Augsburg Lutheran Cemetery, Porter, Indiana.

Lulu’s death certificate noted that the informant was her son, William, who resided at 5242 Miller Avenue. That information is incorrect. William had once resided at that address but had moved with his family to 6209 Miller Avenue. In grief, he must have provided his old address instead of his then current one.
William had recalled to this bio submitter that his sister Loretta was a piano virtuoso who had planned on touring when she came of age.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson

Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson
birth: 1 May 1896 in Miller now Gary, Lake, Indiana to Anders Ludvig “Gust” and Lovisa “Louise” Carlson Johannesson/Johnson
death: 25 July 1968 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Gary, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 16 October 1919 Lake, Indiana
George Bryant Harbaugh
birth: 4 April 1894 in St. Joseph, Indiana to George Frederick and Margaret E. “Maggie” Long Harbaugh
death: 29 December 1954 in LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Gary, Lake, Indiana

Children of Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson and George Bryant Harbaugh:

  • Betty Jean Harbaugh 1922-1988 William Lewis Samuelson
  • George Willard Harbaugh 1924-2004 Dorothy Louise Skogseth
  • Glenn Robert Harbaugh 1928-1995

Ancestor here lived in:

  • LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana
  • Gary, Lake, Indiana

Other Information:

Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson was the daughter of Anders Ludvig “Gust” Johannesson and his second wife, Lovisa “Louise” Carlson. Anders changed his name to Gust Johnson after arriving in the U.S. from Norra Vi, Östergötland, Sweden, on 14 March 1882 with his first wife, Thilda “Anna Matilda” Johansdotter, and six children. Gust and Anna had four more children born in Lake, Indiana before she died. Gust married second on 16 September 1893 in Miller, now Gary, Lake, Indiana. Elsie was the middle child of three daughters from that union. Gust, a laborer on the railroad, died when Elsie was 10. Louise took in boarders. Elsie attended school in Miller which was under the direction of the Hobart, Lake, Indiana school district. She commenced her education in grade 8 on 9 June 1911. Elsie struggled in Algebra and excelled in all other subjects. A member of the Swedish Bethel Lutheran Church in Miller, Elsie attended the Miller Congregation Sunday School; she was confirmed on 21 April 1912. At the time she began dating her future husband, George Bryant Harbaugh, Elsie was employed as a mother’s helper to a Mrs. Meyers in Miller. Elsie and George Bryant had discussed marriage, however, WWI got in the way. Elsie lovingly saved each letter George Bryant wrote home to her during his wartime service in Europe. How frightening it must have been for her as she learned time and time again he had been injured and was recuperating in a base hospital, especially knowing that other Miller boys had been killed. George Bryant had purchased a camera for Elsie and she dutifully took photos of his Miller friends, hoping to cheer him. On 22 May 1919 Elsie received a telgram that George Bryant had made it back to the U.S. safely. The couple were wed by Edward Stark on 16 October 1919 in Lake, Indiana during a violent time in the community; a labor strike had shut down all work at U.S. Steel Corporation. George Bryant and Elsie purchased their first home on Michigan Avenue in the Miller section of Gary, next door to her mother and sister, Helen and five homes away from her sister Ruth who had married Bert Thompson. The couple purchased a Sears & Roebuck model home, the Westly, for $2,614.00 and had it delivered by railroad. George Bryant assembled the two story home and in 1925,the family moved in. Three children were born within six years, all were baptized at Augustana Lutheran Church. Since George Bryant had become a City of Gary fireman, the family was largely unaffected by the Great Depression. Luckily, the firehouse was just down the street from their new home. Elsie was a homemaker while George Bryant worked his way up to Lieutenant with the fire department. During WW2, the couple’s middle child, George Willard, was injured in a plane crash over Italy and became a POW. Like his father, George WIllard returned home to Indiana and had earned a Purple Heart. Elsie became a widow on 29 December 1954 when George Bryant died from a pulmonary embolism and pneumonia after a fall from a ladder while working as a fireman for the Kingsbury Ordnance Plant in LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana. After his death, Elsie moved to a smaller home behind her son Glenn’s home on Miller Avenue in Gary. Her daughter, Betty, and Betty’s family, have moved into the Sear’s kit home. For a time, son George Willard also lived in the neighborhood on Howard Street. Elsie was fondly remembered by her grandchildren and dearly missed when she died of hypertension on 25 July 1968 in Gary, Lake, Indiana. A funeral service was arranged by Lach Funeral Home and conducted by Reverence C. Earl Page at the Chapel of the Dunes, Gary, Lake, Indiana. She was interred at Ridgelawn Cemetery in the Glen Park neighborhood of Gary next to her husband in Section 9, Lot 377, Grave 2 South.

For further information on Elsie Johnson and the Harbaugh family:
Lori Samuelson. Perseverence Amidst Adversity: The Ancestry of Three George Harbaughs. Amazon ebook, 2016.
Contact the submitter for a transcription of The Diary of Mary Ann Eyster Johnson. Submitter is currently working on an ebook about George Bryant’s military service during WW1.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com

George Bryant Harbaugh

George Bryant Harbaugh
birth: 4 April 1894 in St. Joseph, Indiana to George Frederick and Margaret E. “Maggie” Long Harbaugh
death: 29 December 1954 in LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Gary, Lake, Indiana

marriage: 16 October 1919 in Lake, Indiana
Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson
birth: 1 May 1896 in Miller, now Gary, Lake, Indiana to Anders Ludvig “Gust” and Lovisa “Louse” Carlson Johannesson/Johnson
death: 25 July 1968 in Gary, Lake, Indiana
burial: Ridgelawn Cemetery, Gary, Lake, Indiana

Children of Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson and George Bryant Harbaugh:

  • Betty Jean Harbaugh 1922-1988 William Lewis Samuelson
  • George Willard Harbaugh 1924-2004 Dorothy Louise Skogseth
  • Glenn Robert Harbaugh 1928-1995

Ancestor here lived in:

  • St. Joseph, Indiana
  • LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana
  • Gary, Lake, Indiana

Other Information:

George Bryant Harbaugh was the eighth child and sixth son of George Frederick and Margaret E. “Maggie” Long Harbaugh. Born on 5 April 1894 in St. Joseph County, Indiana, his father was a teacher/principal and farmer while his mother was a homemaker. Unlike George Bryant’s father who had completed high school, he likely commenced his education in the 8th grade. His early years found him surrounded by a large family that included his great Aunt Mary Ann Eyster Johnson and Great Uncle William Johnson, maternal Grandmother Betsy, paternal Grandfather Pap,and numerous aunts, uncles, and older cousins. In childhood, George Bryant accompanied his father and siblings on fishing trips; the family owned a bicycle by 1897. George Bryant’s older brother, Grover, was an avid ornithologist and the family also had pet cats. Living on a farm, George Bryant was surrounded by cows, chickens, sheep, pigs, and horses. By 1910, George Bryant was employed as a farm laborer on his family’s farm. The family had made frequent trips to Chicago, Cook, Illinois so it is not surprising that George Bryant found work there beginning on 1 May 1917 as a watchman on the Elgin, Joliet, and Eastern Railroad. His monthly salary was $96.00 with additional income for dinner, supper, and rail car fares incurred on the job. His route took him as far west as Joliet, Illinois and as far east as Gary, Lake, Indiana. With the onset of WWI, George Bryant filed for a draft exemption in Miller, Lake, Indiana based on his occupation but it was not granted. In June 1917 he was listed as a single, tall, slender Caucasian with gray eyes and dark hair. George Bryant made the news on 28 July 1917 when, in the course of his duties, he was involved in a shootout with an employee at Gary’s American Sheet and Tin Plate Company who was brandishing a gun and threatening employees. George Bryant shot the man, Peter Pavelich, in the abdomen; he later died at Mercy Hospital in Gary. It is not known where George Bryant met his sweetheart, Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson, who lived in Miller, Lake, Indiana but the couple was discussing marriage when George Bryant enlisted on 30 March 1918 in Crown Point, Lake, Indiana. He arrived at Camp Taylor, Kentucky the following day. He was disappointed as he had hoped he would be sent to Fort Benjamin Harrison in Indianapolis, closer to Elsie, instead. At the time, George Bryant believed the war would be won and he would return home by fall stating “If Kaiser Bill could see what resources the U.S. has back of her I think he would say enough.” Instead, he boarded a train on 28 April 1918 for Camp Upton, New York. During a stop in Columbus,Bartholomew, Indiana, he sent Elsie a postcard to update her on his travels. The train trip took him through the hills of Pennsylvania and only 67 miles from his father’s birthplace in Waynesboro, Franklin, Pennsylvania. Arriving at Camp Upton he learned he was supposed to have been sent to Camp Mills so after being dropped off at Union Depot in New York CIty, marching 12 blocks through New York to a ferry, he crossed the Hudson River by ferry boat, and took the NYC & H River Ry to Camp Merritt. Why he did not go the Camp Mills is unknown. On 6 May he set sail for Europe with the D Company, 112th Infantry. Ironically, that regiment began in the Civil War and included the 13th, 15th and 17th Pennyslvania Regiments that had once served at Gettysburg, The current members were composed of Pennsylvanians from the area in which his ancestors had resided for generations. George Bryant arrived “somewhere in Europe” on 15 May 1918; he was in Calais, France the following day. He was first injured by gas in the battle to capture Vaux at Chateau-Thierry. The fighting had been fierce and he reported that less than 100 men out of the company of 250 survived. Next George Bryant battled the Dutch; he wrote to Elsie, “Well, Dear, I think we have learned them that the Yanks aren’t here merely to look on, but we are here to settle the fuss…” George Bryant was injured again in the Argonne Forest and was assigned to Base Hospital 56 by 1 October. He had survived the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. George Bryant experienced Armistice Day in a hospital bed; he reported that “At 4 P.M raise H-l…I was in bed yet then but we sure yelled…Bells all over France rang and everybody was happy, believe me.” He went on boast “it was a So. Bend boy who fired the first shot fired by U.S. troops over a year ago in Alsace Lorraine.” “This war is won ‘Thanks to the Yanks.'” George Bryant was released from the hospital on 15 December and sent to a convalescent camp in Allery, France. He was looking forward to returning home; he had been offered his old job back at E. J. & E. He was hopeful that Elsie and he would wed by June. Unfortunately, he developed acute bronchitis and bronco pneumonia so he was hospitalized at Camp Hospital 52. He lost 30 pounds and was so ill, the Red Cross brought his brother, Grover, to visit him. It was then that he learned that the 1918 Flu Epidemic had impacted his family at home in Indiana. George Bryant returned to the U.S. on 22 May 1919 via the US Transport Manchuria. He was assigned to Camp Merritt, New Jersey, then to Camp Sherman, Ohio. He was discharged on 14 June 1919. For his combat injuries, George Bryant was awarded a Purple Heart. George Bryant returned to Miller, Lake, Indiana and back to his old job at E. J. & E. Unfortunately, a labor strike occurred at U.S. Steel that halted work. It was during that turbulent time, on 16 October 1919, that George Bryant wed Elsie Wilhelmina Johnson in Lake County, Indiana, with Edward Stark officiating. After the strike, George Bryant was hired as a policeman at the steel mills. The couple purchased a home on Michigan Avenue in the Miller section of Gary, next door to Elsie’s widowed mother and her sister, Helen. Elsie’s sister, Ruth, lived five homes away with her husband, Bert Thompson. George Bryant and Elsie purchased a Sears & Roebuck model home, the Westly, via the dry goods catalogue for $2,614.00. It was delivered by railroad and the two story home was assembled by George Bryant. In 1925,the family moved in. Three children were born during the next six years, all were baptized at Augustana Lutheran Church. George Bryant decided to change occupations and became a fireman, perhaps the steel strike had made him seek more stable employment. During the Great Depression, George Bryant continued to be employed as a chauffeur with the Gary Fire Department. In his free time, George Bryant dabbled as an entrepreneur; he designed and marketed a crystal radio beginning in the Winter of 1925. He charged $6.00 for the radio that did not come in a cabinet or .25 for a blueprint. Purchasers reported that they could get a signal 360 miles from their home. Even though it was Prohibition, one satisfied customer promised to send a “nice quart of wine.” George Bryant again made the front page of the local newspaper in April 1937 when he was injured while fighting a fire on Miller Avenue and Howard Street in Gary. About this time he was promoted to Lieutenant. Luckily for the family, the firehouse was a half block from their home. George Bryant’s eldest son, George Willard, was drafted into WW2. After his own war time experience, it must have been difficult for him as a father to bear. Like his father, George Willard was injured, taken as a POW, and returned home earning a Purple Heart. After WW2, George Bryant transferred from fire fighter to being a fire protection agent. He also began working as a fireman at the Kingsbury Ordnance Plant in LaPorte, LaPorte, Indiana. On 13 December 1954, at 1:15 PM he accidentally fell from a ladder while at work. He was transported to Holy Family Hospital in LaPorte. He developed pneumonia and a pulmonary embolism. After 16 days of treatment, George Bryant died. It was the third time in his life that he had made the front page news. He is buried in Ridgelawn Cemetery in the Glen Park section of Gary, Lake, Indiana.

For further information on George Bryant and the Harbaugh family:
Lori Samuelson. Perseverence Amidst Adversity: The Ancestry of Three George Harbaughs. Amazon ebook, 2016.
Contact the submitter for a transcription of The Diary of Mary Ann Eyster Johnson. Submitter is currently working on an ebook about George Bryant’s military service during WW1.

Submitted by:
Lori Samuelson
Email: genealogyatheart@gmail.com